Who and Whom

Who and Whom Who is often confused with whom. Who is a subjective-case pronoun, meaning it functions as a subject in a sentence, and whom is an objective-case pronoun, meaning it functions as an object in a sentence. If you can replace the word with […]


THE POSSESSIVE FORM OF NOUNS The possessive form is used with nouns referring to people, groups of people, countries, and animals. It shows a relationship of belonging between one thing and another. To form the possessive, add apostrophe + s to the noun. For example: […]

Parentheses and Brackets

Parentheses and Brackets The difference between a ‘bracket’ and a ‘parentheses’ can be a bit confusing. Generally, parentheses refers to round brackets () and brackets to square brackets[]. Parentheses are punctuation marks that are used to set off information within a text or paragraph. For […]

Direct and indirect speech

Direct and indirect speech Direct speech describes when something is being repeated exactly as it was – usually in between a pair of inverted commas. For example: He told me,“I’ll call you at 8pm.” Indirect speech will still share the same information – but instead […]

Question tags

Question tags A tag question is a special construction in English. We usually use them for checking information that we think we know is true or for asking for confirmation that we have heard something correctly. They are very common in English. Useful rules If […]

The interrogative form

The interrogative form The construction of the interrogative form is different if the verb is an auxiliary verb (be, have, will, can, etc.), or a ‘normal’ verb. Interrogative of ‘normal’ (non-auxiliary) verbs For ‘normal’ verbs (verbs that are not auxiliary verbs like ‘to be’, ‘to […]


Modals Modals (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verbs,modal auxiliaries) are special verbs which behave irregularly in English. They are different from normal verbs like “work, play, visit…” They give additional information about the function of the main verb that follows it. They have a […]


Definite and Indefinite Articles English has three articles: the, a and an.             the is used to refer to specific or particular nouns;             a/an is used to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns. We call the the definite article and a/an the indefinite article.             […]